Citizen science (also known as crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur or nonprofessional scientists. Formally, citizen science has been defined as "the systematic collection and analysis of data; development of technology; testing of natural phenomena; and the dissemination of these activities by researchers on a primarily avocational basis." Citizen science is sometimes included in terms such as "public participation in scientific research", participatory monitoring and participatory action research.
The terms citizen science and citizen scientists entered the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014. Citizen science is defined as scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions, and citizen scientists, in the modern sense, are defined as "a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community" or "'a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions'" an amateur scientist.
A person can be a citizen for several reasons. Usually citizenship of the place of birth is automatic; in other cases an application may be required. Each country has their own policies and regulations which change the criteria of who is issued citizenship.
Parents are citizens (jus sanguinis). If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well. Formerly this might only have applied through the paternal line, but sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity, and is related to the concept of a nation state common in China. Where jus sanguinis holds, a person born outside a country, one or both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is also a citizen. States normally limit the right to citizenship by descent to a certain number of generations born outside the state. This form of citizenship is not common in civil law countries.
Citizen is the debut full-length album by Army of Me. Its first single is "Going Through Changes" which appears on racing video game Burnout Dominator and later on Burnout Paradise. The song "Better Run" is featured in ABC Family's Kyle XY in the episode "Primary Colors" originally aired on February 25, 2008.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms.
Philosophy is a distinct activity that is not generally considered science. Philosophers aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality and experience that cannot be physically measured.
Scientists are also distinct from engineers, those who design, build, and maintain devices for particular situations; however, no engineer attains that title without significant study of science and the scientific method. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called applied science. An applied scientist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is conducting research with the aim of developing new technologies and practical methods. When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called natural philosophy.
The Scientists are an influential post-punk band from Perth, Australia, led by Kim Salmon, initially known as Exterminators and then Invaders. The band had two primary incarnations: the Perth-based punk band of the late 1970s and the Sydney/London-based swamp rock band of the 1980s. The Scientists were much more influential than their minimal commercial success would indicate, lending their influence to artists such as Mudhoney and New York's downtown indie scene of the early 1990s.
Kim Salmon had formed a protopunk band, the Cheap Nasties, in August 1976. He left in December 1977 and the remainder, with Robbie Porritt joining as lead vocalist, continued as The Manikins. Salmon replaced Mark Demetrius in the Exterminators, who then became known as the Invaders. The lineup included Roddy Radalj (guitar, vocals), Boris Sujdovic (bass) and John Rowlings (drums).
The Invaders became the Scientists in May 1978, when James Baker from the Victims replaced John Rowlings. Sujdovic left the band in August 1978. The songwriting partnership that ensued, with Baker writing lyrics which Salmon would put to music, naturally favoured a melodic pop infused style of punk.
According to Robinson, the petition has over 31,000 signatories. Over 9,000 report to have a Ph.D., mostly in engineering. The NIPCC (2009) Report lists 31,478 degreed signatories, including 9,029 with Ph.D.s. The list has been criticized for its lack of verification, with pranksters successfully submitting Charles Darwin, a member of the Spice Girls and characters from Star Wars, and getting them briefly included on the list.
The text of the petition reads, in its entirety:
The petition included a covering letter from Frederick Seitz, chairman of the George C. Marshall Institute, and made reference to his former position as president of the US National Academy of Sciences; together with a manuscript plus a reprint of a December 1997 Wall Street Journal op-ed, "Science Has Spoken: Global Warming Is a Myth", by Arthur and Zachary Robinson. The current version of Seitz's letter describes the summary as "a twelve page review of information on the subject of 'global warming'." The article is titled "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide" by Arthur B. Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, Sallie Baliunas and Willie Soon.
Bats in Backyards project wants citizen scientists to help uncover secrets of the night sky ...Following a successful pilot last year, the Bats in Backyards project is once again calling on citizen scientists to help survey insect-eating bats by recording bat calls over a period of 3 to 5 days.
To understand factors linked to the birds’ survival, researchers combined data from the citizen-science study with maps of light pollution, noise pollution and paved surface area ... The study also highlighted how scientists can tap into an often overlooked research tool − the citizen-scientist.
I share some of the very negative reactions to Brown’s stunt that have been expressed by many climate scientists ...Scientists should, of ... We have to learn to be good scientists and good citizens at the same time, and to see those obligations as connected rather than at odds.
ALEX PORTAL ...People are also reading… ... Sasquatch researchers gave stirring presentations on the work being done by citizen scientists in the field of Sasquatch-ology, devotees dressed to the nines in their very best Sasquatchiest getups for the costume contest, and the capper of the event, the calling contest yielded some harrowing hollers ... .
Michelle Griffith at the Minnesota Reformer looks into the nonprofit Let Them Play MN, which sued Gov. Tim Walz twice over shutting down athletics during the COVID pandemic ...Erin Hassanzadeh at WCCO reports citizen scientists discovered two new invasive pests, the Asiatic garden beetle and the elm seed bug, in Minnesota this summer ... .
The team has been hard at work developing “SunSketcher,” an app that allows “citizen scientists” to aid in real eclipse research ... states ... May said a project like this isn’t simple – it requires a slew of disciplines to make it work, from graphic artists to app developers designing the app to astronomers and scientists who help guide the research ... .
—The discovery of an invasive vine in Maine has alarmed state officials who keep an eye out for non-native species. It's called the mile-a-minute vine, and despite the name, it doesn't grow 60 miles in one hour ... Hilaire said she got so many emails, her department came up with an identification chart to help citizen scientists know what to look for.
... monitoring site after the dam,” says PanuOrell, a research scientist at the Natural ResourcesInstitute in Finland ... Erkinaro, who is working with citizen scientists to track where pink salmon go when they die, is studying nutrient levels in the water, asking questions such as.
NEW YORK— On a recent Sunday afternoon, the divers arrived on a thin strip of sand at the furthest, watery edge of New York City... Not all is pretty ... The project invites what organizers call "citizen scientists" to survey their diving sites to help catalog the myriad items that don't belong in oceans, lakes and other bodies of water ... W. .
Dive by dive, small groups have been trying to undo some of the damage as part of the DIVERS-ity Initiative, which promotes inclusion in the sport ... Not all is pretty ... The project invites what organizers call "citizen scientists" to survey their diving sites to help catalog the myriad items that don't belong in oceans, lakes and other bodies of water.
On a recent Sunday afternoon, the divers arrived on a thin strip of sand at the furthest, watery edge of New York City... Not all is pretty ... The DiveAgainstDebris project invites what organizers call “citizen scientists” to survey their diving sites to help catalog the myriad items that don’t belong in oceans, lakes and other bodies of water ... ....
BOBBY CAINA CALVAN AND TED SHAFFREY. Associated Press. NEW YORK STATE ... Not all is pretty ... The undersea litter isn't always visible from the shore ... Sept ... Sept ... Sept ... The project invites what organizers call "citizen scientists" to survey their diving sites to help catalog the myriad items that don't belong in oceans, lakes and other bodies of water ... .
More On. scuba divers. Connecticut couple rescues baby shark they found stuck in a work glove at the bottom of the ocean ... Not all is pretty ... “We have to do it all.” ... The project invites what organizers call “citizen scientists” to survey their diving sites to help catalog the myriad items that don’t belong in oceans, lakes and other bodies of water ... ....