Citizen science (also known as crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur or nonprofessional scientists. Formally, citizen science has been defined as "the systematic collection and analysis of data; development of technology; testing of natural phenomena; and the dissemination of these activities by researchers on a primarily avocational basis." Citizen science is sometimes included in terms such as "public participation in scientific research", participatory monitoring and participatory action research.
The terms citizen science and citizen scientists entered the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014. Citizen science is defined as scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions, and citizen scientists, in the modern sense, are defined as "a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community" or "'a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions'" an amateur scientist.
A person can be a citizen for several reasons. Usually citizenship of the place of birth is automatic; in other cases an application may be required. Each country has their own policies and regulations which change the criteria of who is issued citizenship.
Parents are citizens (jus sanguinis). If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well. Formerly this might only have applied through the paternal line, but sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity, and is related to the concept of a nation state common in China. Where jus sanguinis holds, a person born outside a country, one or both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is also a citizen. States normally limit the right to citizenship by descent to a certain number of generations born outside the state. This form of citizenship is not common in civil law countries.
Citizen is the debut full-length album by Army of Me. Its first single is "Going Through Changes" which appears on racing video game Burnout Dominator and later on Burnout Paradise. The song "Better Run" is featured in ABC Family's Kyle XY in the episode "Primary Colors" originally aired on February 25, 2008.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms.
Philosophy is a distinct activity that is not generally considered science. Philosophers aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality and experience that cannot be physically measured.
Scientists are also distinct from engineers, those who design, build, and maintain devices for particular situations; however, no engineer attains that title without significant study of science and the scientific method. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called applied science. An applied scientist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is conducting research with the aim of developing new technologies and practical methods. When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called natural philosophy.
The Scientists are an influential post-punk band from Perth, Australia, led by Kim Salmon, initially known as Exterminators and then Invaders. The band had two primary incarnations: the Perth-based punk band of the late 1970s and the Sydney/London-based swamp rock band of the 1980s. The Scientists were much more influential than their minimal commercial success would indicate, lending their influence to artists such as Mudhoney and New York's downtown indie scene of the early 1990s.
Kim Salmon had formed a protopunk band, the Cheap Nasties, in August 1976. He left in December 1977 and the remainder, with Robbie Porritt joining as lead vocalist, continued as The Manikins. Salmon replaced Mark Demetrius in the Exterminators, who then became known as the Invaders. The lineup included Roddy Radalj (guitar, vocals), Boris Sujdovic (bass) and John Rowlings (drums).
The Invaders became the Scientists in May 1978, when James Baker from the Victims replaced John Rowlings. Sujdovic left the band in August 1978. The songwriting partnership that ensued, with Baker writing lyrics which Salmon would put to music, naturally favoured a melodic pop infused style of punk.
According to Robinson, the petition has over 31,000 signatories. Over 9,000 report to have a Ph.D., mostly in engineering. The NIPCC (2009) Report lists 31,478 degreed signatories, including 9,029 with Ph.D.s. The list has been criticized for its lack of verification, with pranksters successfully submitting Charles Darwin, a member of the Spice Girls and characters from Star Wars, and getting them briefly included on the list.
The text of the petition reads, in its entirety:
The petition included a covering letter from Frederick Seitz, chairman of the George C. Marshall Institute, and made reference to his former position as president of the US National Academy of Sciences; together with a manuscript plus a reprint of a December 1997 Wall Street Journal op-ed, "Science Has Spoken: Global Warming Is a Myth", by Arthur and Zachary Robinson. The current version of Seitz's letter describes the summary as "a twelve page review of information on the subject of 'global warming'." The article is titled "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide" by Arthur B. Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, Sallie Baliunas and Willie Soon.
General Hospital in the city on the second day of the drive for senior citizens ... Vala, who has been the Governor of the southern state since 2014, has appealed to the people, especially senior citizens to take the vaccine at the earliest and free the country Covid free.
In LawrenceBerg’s letter Feb ...America is back” (Feb. 20), Mr ... NASA’s “mission that seeks to find evidence of ancient extraterrestrial life” may be exhilarating for scientists worldwide but it means little to the average citizens of this planet ... There is much speculation by serious scientists as to how to make Mars habitable for Earth’s life forms ... Wow.
Two recent news items related to plantations caught my attention. PUBLISHED ON MAR 02, 2021 01.03 PM IST...Soil scientists should study such traditional knowledge, he suggests ... Satish recommends localised planning of plantation activities, in consultation with citizen’s groups, communities and scientists ... ....
GHENT, Belgium--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Mar 2, 2021-- ... In this new role, he will support and further promote Waylay’s steep growth trajectory throughout the region ... ABOUT WAYLAY ... Waylay has a passion for supporting citizen developer communities and ensuring it puts all valuable data to work for developers, data scientists and domain experts ... Find out more at.
(IndependentFilePhoto) ...Early FOSR members – some still involved today – were interested in continuing work established by Jim Miner of Owosso. Miner had helped organize some of the first river cleanup events in Owosso during the 1970s ... Water Street ... FOSR even has opportunities for “citizen scientists,” allowing people to learn as they go ... .
It was carried out as part of the citizen science project of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ... Also read ... Mitra suggested that programmes like the IASC by NASA can help in tracking asteroids with the help of citizen scientists and students. While such programmes promote experiential learning of STEM i.e ... Also read ... .
What everyone agreed was that time would tell ... But it may leave some leading EU figures with red faces this afternoon ... The minister then suggested that French citizens would not stand for this kind of gamble, even if the method had been approved by scientists ... Handelsblatt’s somewhat dubious reporting appeared to influence German scientists as well ... .
Picture this. you're in your backyard gardening when you get that strange, ominous feeling of being watched ...So, to help narrow down the general areas where powerful owls live in Melbourne, we used species distribution models and sought help from land management agencies and citizen scientists ... The adventures of Australia's youngest scientist ... ....
...SearchCollaboration (IASC) as part of a NASA citizen science project ... According to Mitra and her team, NASA has initiated programs like IASC to track such asteroids regularly, also open to citizen scientists and students to enable the discovery and tracking of more asteroids.
The effects of climate change on the pollen season have been studied at length, and according to some scientists, has grown ... He also added that citizen scientists may be able to contribute to pollen studies, who can help collect local observations and contribute to data collection.
Shares ... Before, only a few elite data scientists were able to perform the task of analyzing complex data ... Mismanagement or misinterpretation of data is a real concern ... In this regard, data scientists and citizen data scientists should be open to all kinds of viewpoints that would ultimately help to take better decisions ... *** ... .
There is much confusion regarding COVID-19 spread — understandable given the evolving nature of the data set and the proliferation of misinformation ...Scientists from the Directorate of Health and deCODE genetics out of Reykjavik monitored every citizen in the country after being potentially exposed to COVID-19 during spring 2020 ... Email ... .