Citizen science (also known as crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur or nonprofessional scientists. Formally, citizen science has been defined as "the systematic collection and analysis of data; development of technology; testing of natural phenomena; and the dissemination of these activities by researchers on a primarily avocational basis." Citizen science is sometimes included in terms such as "public participation in scientific research", participatory monitoring and participatory action research.
The terms citizen science and citizen scientists entered the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014. Citizen science is defined as scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions, and citizen scientists, in the modern sense, are defined as "a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community" or "'a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions'" an amateur scientist.
A person can be a citizen for several reasons. Usually citizenship of the place of birth is automatic; in other cases an application may be required. Each country has their own policies and regulations which change the criteria of who is issued citizenship.
Parents are citizens (jus sanguinis). If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well. Formerly this might only have applied through the paternal line, but sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity, and is related to the concept of a nation state common in China. Where jus sanguinis holds, a person born outside a country, one or both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is also a citizen. States normally limit the right to citizenship by descent to a certain number of generations born outside the state. This form of citizenship is not common in civil law countries.
Citizen is the debut full-length album by Army of Me. Its first single is "Going Through Changes" which appears on racing video game Burnout Dominator and later on Burnout Paradise. The song "Better Run" is featured in ABC Family's Kyle XY in the episode "Primary Colors" originally aired on February 25, 2008.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms.
Philosophy is a distinct activity that is not generally considered science. Philosophers aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality and experience that cannot be physically measured.
Scientists are also distinct from engineers, those who design, build, and maintain devices for particular situations; however, no engineer attains that title without significant study of science and the scientific method. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called applied science. An applied scientist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is conducting research with the aim of developing new technologies and practical methods. When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called natural philosophy.
The Scientists are an influential post-punk band from Perth, Australia, led by Kim Salmon, initially known as Exterminators and then Invaders. The band had two primary incarnations: the Perth-based punk band of the late 1970s and the Sydney/London-based swamp rock band of the 1980s. The Scientists were much more influential than their minimal commercial success would indicate, lending their influence to artists such as Mudhoney and New York's downtown indie scene of the early 1990s.
Kim Salmon had formed a protopunk band, the Cheap Nasties, in August 1976. He left in December 1977 and the remainder, with Robbie Porritt joining as lead vocalist, continued as The Manikins. Salmon replaced Mark Demetrius in the Exterminators, who then became known as the Invaders. The lineup included Roddy Radalj (guitar, vocals), Boris Sujdovic (bass) and John Rowlings (drums).
The Invaders became the Scientists in May 1978, when James Baker from the Victims replaced John Rowlings. Sujdovic left the band in August 1978. The songwriting partnership that ensued, with Baker writing lyrics which Salmon would put to music, naturally favoured a melodic pop infused style of punk.
According to Robinson, the petition has over 31,000 signatories. Over 9,000 report to have a Ph.D., mostly in engineering. The NIPCC (2009) Report lists 31,478 degreed signatories, including 9,029 with Ph.D.s. The list has been criticized for its lack of verification, with pranksters successfully submitting Charles Darwin, a member of the Spice Girls and characters from Star Wars, and getting them briefly included on the list.
The text of the petition reads, in its entirety:
The petition included a covering letter from Frederick Seitz, chairman of the George C. Marshall Institute, and made reference to his former position as president of the US National Academy of Sciences; together with a manuscript plus a reprint of a December 1997 Wall Street Journal op-ed, "Science Has Spoken: Global Warming Is a Myth", by Arthur and Zachary Robinson. The current version of Seitz's letter describes the summary as "a twelve page review of information on the subject of 'global warming'." The article is titled "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide" by Arthur B. Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, Sallie Baliunas and Willie Soon.
the Parthenon Sculptures. For GreekCityTimes – and for many millions of Greeks, philhellenes, scientists, artists, students and regular everyday citizens around the world – the repatriation and reunification of the Parthenon Sculptures held for these past 200 years at the British Museum in London – is of more than symbolic importance ... Mr ... .
Landowners, hunters, conservationists, scientists and other concerned citizens from across Texas are calling for immediate implementation of regulatory protocols in response to the recent outbreak of chronic wasting disease in captive deer facilities in Uvalde, Hunt, Mason and Matagorda counties, and associated release sites across the state ... ....
It was a collaborative effort by an international network of thousands of heroes – dedicated scientists in Oxford and across four continents, but also clinicians, regulators, manufacturers and the brave volunteer citizens who offered up their arms for us ... on to it by scientists.
(2002-04), Toledo, Ohio (2014) or Flint, Michigan (2014-16) directly impact citizens’ health ...Water resource knowledge among citizens & decision-makers ... Readily deployable and affordable water assessment tools would help to identify water resource problems, in drinking water and natural waters, and use citizen scientists to gain beneficial data.
The humpback is one of several species he is able to recognise by the skin pattern on its tail – a skill he has developed in more than 20 years as a citizen scientist observing the mammals ... Pirotta acknowledges the citizen scientists have not been academically trained and don’t ...
For this, they analyzed over 1 million occurrence records on 77 species from different regional databases, most of which were collected by citizen scientists and collated by the natural history society of German-speaking odonatologists (GdO).
In 2015, professional astronomers working with citizen scientists from the project announced the discovery of a nearby star displaying unusually strong and consistent dimming over time ...Today, the scientists behind the discovery believe that the unusual dips in light are caused by clouds of cosmic dust .
The kits are available free of charge to youth-serving organizations in South Dakota through June 21 ... The kit further includes profiles of the scientists and engineers who are part of the WAFERx project as well as an activity on citizen science for youth to carry out on their own ... The deadline to apply for Land Use Explorers kits is June 21 ... ....
"SpaceML helped accelerate impact by bringing in a team of citizen scientists who deployed an interpretable Active... And the best thing is that future citizen scientists can partake in the CAMS project by building on the publicly accessible trained models, scripts, and web tools.".
Weekend weather forecast brings fire watch ... The watch means that critical fire weather conditions are forecast to occur and red flag warnings could be added ... Again this summer, a citizen science effort is being formed to help scientists understand the potential impacts of climate change on the American pika and its alpine habitat ... .
In the case of Covid-19, online memes propose a vast conspiracy linking together western governments, deceitful scientists and journalists acting as their propagandists in order to strip citizens of their hard-won freedoms.