Citizen science (also known as crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur or nonprofessional scientists. Formally, citizen science has been defined as "the systematic collection and analysis of data; development of technology; testing of natural phenomena; and the dissemination of these activities by researchers on a primarily avocational basis." Citizen science is sometimes included in terms such as "public participation in scientific research", participatory monitoring and participatory action research.
The terms citizen science and citizen scientists entered the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014. Citizen science is defined as scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions, and citizen scientists, in the modern sense, are defined as "a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community" or "'a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions'" an amateur scientist.
A person can be a citizen for several reasons. Usually citizenship of the place of birth is automatic; in other cases an application may be required. Each country has their own policies and regulations which change the criteria of who is issued citizenship.
Parents are citizens (jus sanguinis). If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well. Formerly this might only have applied through the paternal line, but sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity, and is related to the concept of a nation state common in China. Where jus sanguinis holds, a person born outside a country, one or both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is also a citizen. States normally limit the right to citizenship by descent to a certain number of generations born outside the state. This form of citizenship is not common in civil law countries.
Citizen is the debut full-length album by Army of Me. Its first single is "Going Through Changes" which appears on racing video game Burnout Dominator and later on Burnout Paradise. The song "Better Run" is featured in ABC Family's Kyle XY in the episode "Primary Colors" originally aired on February 25, 2008.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms.
Philosophy is a distinct activity that is not generally considered science. Philosophers aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality and experience that cannot be physically measured.
Scientists are also distinct from engineers, those who design, build, and maintain devices for particular situations; however, no engineer attains that title without significant study of science and the scientific method. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called applied science. An applied scientist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is conducting research with the aim of developing new technologies and practical methods. When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called natural philosophy.
The Scientists are an influential post-punk band from Perth, Australia, led by Kim Salmon, initially known as Exterminators and then Invaders. The band had two primary incarnations: the Perth-based punk band of the late 1970s and the Sydney/London-based swamp rock band of the 1980s. The Scientists were much more influential than their minimal commercial success would indicate, lending their influence to artists such as Mudhoney and New York's downtown indie scene of the early 1990s.
Kim Salmon had formed a protopunk band, the Cheap Nasties, in August 1976. He left in December 1977 and the remainder, with Robbie Porritt joining as lead vocalist, continued as The Manikins. Salmon replaced Mark Demetrius in the Exterminators, who then became known as the Invaders. The lineup included Roddy Radalj (guitar, vocals), Boris Sujdovic (bass) and John Rowlings (drums).
The Invaders became the Scientists in May 1978, when James Baker from the Victims replaced John Rowlings. Sujdovic left the band in August 1978. The songwriting partnership that ensued, with Baker writing lyrics which Salmon would put to music, naturally favoured a melodic pop infused style of punk.
According to Robinson, the petition has over 31,000 signatories. Over 9,000 report to have a Ph.D., mostly in engineering. The NIPCC (2009) Report lists 31,478 degreed signatories, including 9,029 with Ph.D.s. The list has been criticized for its lack of verification, with pranksters successfully submitting Charles Darwin, a member of the Spice Girls and characters from Star Wars, and getting them briefly included on the list.
The text of the petition reads, in its entirety:
The petition included a covering letter from Frederick Seitz, chairman of the George C. Marshall Institute, and made reference to his former position as president of the US National Academy of Sciences; together with a manuscript plus a reprint of a December 1997 Wall Street Journal op-ed, "Science Has Spoken: Global Warming Is a Myth", by Arthur and Zachary Robinson. The current version of Seitz's letter describes the summary as "a twelve page review of information on the subject of 'global warming'." The article is titled "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide" by Arthur B. Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, Sallie Baliunas and Willie Soon.
During her tour, she made presentations to more than 10,000 eager students and citizen scientists and may have even converted some skeptical bar patrons and climate deniers she met along the way ... I met a citizen scientist in Ontario that was tasked with recording roosting monarchs that congregate at the shore of Lake Erie.
UPDATED ON MAY 13, 2021 11.20 AM IST...Citizen scientists assigned to each park observed how much and in what ways they were used and whether or not visitors were engaged in activities deemed to be "high-risk" for transmitting COVID-19, such as playing contact sports, not wearing a mask, or coughing without covering ... ....
LINCOLN — Nebraska lawmakers blocked what would have been one of the nation's strictest medical marijuana laws on Wednesday. As a consequence, the state may see one of the most wide-open medical marijuana measures on the ballot next year ... And State Sen ... "We've grown a movement.".Politics ... "We are citizen legislators," said Sen ... "We are not scientists ... 1.
Globe at Night enlists citizen scientists — volunteers who help researchers collect and analyze data — to take Sky Quality Meters out into their communities and measure light pollution ...Citizen scientists ... They need citizen scientists’ help in local communities.
The marine research community, as well as First Nations, citizen scientists, environmental and conservation organizations, and economic ...Already well-informed about coastal issues, citizen scientists would be an effective group to help define and achieve project goals, he said.
Forces with Iran’s Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) have destroyed a team of terrorists in the northwest of the country near the border with Turkey, killing seven of its members in the security operation ... More than 17,160 Iranian citizens, including senior officials and nuclear scientists, have been killed by terrorists in recent decades ... .
... has a responsibility to protect citizens from threats to air quality, including harmful ground-level ozone ... Over the past two years, we spoke to thousands of citizens, scientists, oil and gas operators, and environmental organizations – and the rule vastly improved as a result.
OceanGate Expeditions TitanicSurveyExpedition 2021 Medical Team.. Dr. MarcY ...Charles H ... Burdick ... Media Inquiries . LisaDreher ... These expeditions, to depths approaching 4,000 meters (13,123 feet), provide rare opportunities for citizen scientists to observe the mysteries of the deep sea and expand our understanding of our home, earth, the blue planet.
Salk quickly became America’s most famous and best-loved scientist, though the adulation only briefly dimmed for a time when an improperly prepared batch of the vaccine produced by Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California, sickened 40,000 people, causing at least 169 cases of paralytic polio and 10 deaths, according to David M.
The statement from the WHO top scientist comes a day after the Goa government gave a green signal for the usage of the drug to all citizens above 18 years to reduce the extent of COVID-19 infection. ... Merck said its scientists continue to carefully examine findings of all available and emerging studies of Ivermectin for treatment of COVID-19.
The model’s outputs were very similar to observations made by our beachcombing “citizen scientists”, but key discrepancies highlighted where the model could be improved and how beaching could be incorporated into oceanographic transport simulations.
"Generations of my family come from India. My mother (Shyamala Gopalan) was born and raised in India. And I have family members who live in India today ... she said ... Devastating second wave ... to become a scientist ... US issues advisory to its citizens in India to leave due to Covid surge. Indian American scientist spots genes that fight Covid infection ... Govt ... .